Differentiated service delivery framework for people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection


For people living with HIV/AIDS, care is commonly delivered through Differentiated Service Delivery (DSD). Although people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and HIV/AIDS experience severe treatment associated challenges, there is no DSD model to support their treatment. In this study, we defined patterns of medication adherence and characterized longitudinal barriers to inform development of an MDR-TB/HIV DSD framework.

Adults with MDR-TB and HIV initiating bedaquiline (BDQ) and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were enrolled and followed through the end of MDR-TB treatment. Electronic dose monitoring devices (EDM) measured BDQ and ART adherence. Longitudinal focus groups were conducted and transcripts analyzed thematically to describe discrete treatment stage-specific and cross-cutting treatment challenges.

283 participants were enrolled and followed through treatment completion (median 17.8 months [IQR 16.5–20.2]). Thirteen focus groups were conducted. Most participants (82.7%, 234/283) maintained high adherence (mean BDQ adherence 95.3%; mean ART adherence 85.5%), but an adherence-challenged subpopulation with <85% cumulative adherence (17.3%, 49/283) had significant declines in mean weekly BDQ adherence from 94.9% to 39.9% (p<0.0001) and mean weekly ART adherence from 83.9% to 26.6% (p<0.0001) over 6 months. Psychosocial, behavioral, and structural obstacles identified in qualitative data were associated with adherence deficits in discrete treatment stages, and identified potential stage specific interventions.

A DSD framework for MDR-TB/HIV should intensify support for adherence-challenged subpopulations, provide multi-modal support for adherence across the treatment course and account for psychosocial, behavioral, and structural challenges linked to discrete treatment stages.


Reis, K., Wolf, A., Perumal, R., Seepamore, B., Guzman, K., Ross, J., ... & O’Donnell, M. (2022). Differentiated service delivery framework for people with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV co-infection. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 10-1097.
Geographies South Africa

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