Costs incurred by people with co-morbid tuberculosis and diabetes and their households in the Philippines

Summary


Objective
Diabetes is a risk factor for TB mortality and relapse. The Philippines has a high TB incidence with co-morbid diabetes. This study assessed the pre- and post-TB diagnosis costs incurred by people with TB and diabetes (TB-DM) and their households in the Philippines.

Methods
Longitudinal data was collected for costs, income, and coping mechanisms of TB-affected households in Negros Occidental and Cebu, the Philippines. Data collection was conducted four times during TB treatment. The data collection tools were developed by adapting WHO’s cross-sectional questionnaire in the Tuberculosis Patient Cost Surveys: A Handbook into a longitudinal study design. Demographic and clinical characteristics, self-reported household income, number of facility visits, patient costs, the proportion of TB-affected households facing catastrophic costs due to TB (>20% of annual household income before TB), coping mechanisms, and social support received were compared by diabetes status at the time of TB diagnosis.

Results
530 people with TB were enrolled in this study, and 144 (27.2%) had TB-DM based on diabetes testing at the time of TB diagnosis. 75.4% of people with TB-DM were more than 45 years old compared to 50.3% of people with TB-only (p<0.001). People with TB-DM had more frequent visits for TB treatment (120 vs 87 visits, p = 0.054) as well as for total visits for TB-DM treatment (129 vs 88 visits, p = 0.010) compared to those with TB-only. There was no significant difference in the proportion of TB-affected households facing catastrophic costs between those with TB-DM (76.3%) and those with TB-only (68.7%, p = 0.691).

Conclusion
People with TB-DM in the Philippines face extensive health service use. However, this does not translate into substantial differences in the incidence of catastrophic cost. Further study is required to understand the incidence of catastrophic costs due to diabetes-only in the Philippines.

Citation/Ref

APA Citation Yamanaka, T., Castro, M. C., Ferrer, J. P., Solon, J. A., Cox, S. E., Laurence, Y. V., & Vassall, A. (2024). Costs incurred by people with co-morbid tuberculosis and diabetes and their households in the Philippines. PLOS ONE, 19(1), e0297342.
Tags Diabetes
Geographies Philippines

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